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Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 93-98

Diagnostic yield and technical aspects of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of the spine: A single-center retrospective analysis of outcomes and review of the literature

Department of Radiology, St. John's Hospital, Kattappana, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Reddy Ravikanth
Department of Radiology, St. John's Hospital, Kattappana - 685 515, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_43_20

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Background: The technique of a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of spinal lesions has been shown to be a useful alternative to paraspinal biopsy for vertebral body lesions in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Percutaneous vertebral biopsy is less invasive, cost-effective, and is suitable for patients with intractable back pain and vertebral body lesions that are detected with noninvasive imaging modalities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic utility and spectrum of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transpedicular biopsies of the thoracolumbar spine performed at our institution. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study to establish the diagnostic utility and spectrum of percutaneous fluroscopic guided transpedicular biopsy of lower thoracic and lumbar vertebral lesions has been performed on 42 patients in a tertiary care hospital between April 2017 and December 2019. There were 28 male patients and 14 female patients. The mean age was 48 years (range: 12–66 years). There were one 14 thoracic, 26 lumbar, and 2 sacral biopsy specimens. The lesion level was determined under fluoroscopy. Biopsy was taken with a trephine needle under local anesthesia. Accuracy and effectiveness of the technique were analyzed on histopathologic confirmation. Results: The fluoroscopic guided percutaneous transpedicular spine biopsies of 42 patients with spinal pathology were performed through the posterior transpedicular approach percutaneously. Of the 42 patients, 28 were male (66.7%) and 14 were female (33.3%). Vertebral involvement was observed to be more in the lower thoracic region (26.2%), followed by the upper dorsal region (7.1%), L1 (23.6%), L2 (6.4%), L3 (14.6%), L5 (17.3%), and sacrum (4.8%). There were 21 cases with tumor etiology (14 metastasis, 2 malignant round cell tumor, 2 multiple myeloma, and 3 lymphomas), 14 tuberculosis (TB), 4 osteomyelitis, 2 inflammatory, and 1 isolated compression fractures. Twelve patients of the 14 diagnosed cases who were diagnosed with TB on histopathology had positive TB culture and sensitivity pattern. Conclusion: Percutaneous transpedicular fluoroscopy-guided biopsy with a Jamshidi trocar with an internal diameter of 3.1 mm is a simple, safe, and reliable method for the etiological diagnosis of vertebral lesions. The use of this technique, however, is dependent on the accurate placement of the trocar and on close qualified interdisciplinary clinical cooperation. This minimally invasive technique is simple, safe, and effective in the diagnosis of malignant and infective lesions.

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