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Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 287-292

Ehlers–Danlos syndrome-associated craniocervical instability with cervicomedullary syndrome: Comparing outcome of craniocervical fusion with occipital bone versus occipital condyle fixation

1 Department of Neurosurgery, Hofstra School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY, USA
2 Department of Neurosurgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA
3 Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Correspondence Address:
Alexander Spiessberger
Department of Neurosurgery, Hofstra School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcvjs.JCVJS_166_20

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Introduction: Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) predisposes to craniocervical instability (CCI) with resulting cranial settling and cervicomedullary syndrome due to ligamentous laxity. This study investigates possible differences in radiographic outcomes and operative complication rate between two surgical techniques in patients with EDS and CCI undergoing craniocervical fusion (CCF): occipital bone (OB) versus occipital condyle (OC) fixation. Methods: A retrospective search of the institutional operative database between January 07, 2017, and December 31, 2019, was conducted to identify EDS patients who underwent CCF with either OB (Group OB) or OC (Group OC) fixation. For each patient, pre- and post-operative radiographic measurements and operative complications were extracted and compared between groups (OB vs. OC): pB-C2, clivoaxial angle (CXA), tonsillar descent, C2C7 sagittal Cobb angle, C2 long axis, and operative complications. Results: Of a total of 26 patients, 13 underwent OV and 13 underwent OC fixation. Eighty-five percent of the patients underwent OC underwent fusion from occiput to C2, while the remaining 15% fusion from occiput to C3. Radiographic outcome in the OC versus OB group was preoperative measurements were similar between OC and OB group: pB-C2 8.8 mm (1.5, 6–11) versus 8.3 mm (1.7, 4–9.6), P = 0.43; CXA 128.2° (5.4, 122–136) versus 131.9° (6.8,122–141), P = 0.41; tonsillar descent 6.2 mm (4.8, 0–15) versus 2.9 mm (3.4, 0–8), P = 0.05; C2 long axis 75.2° (6.7, 58–85) versus 67.2° (21.4, 1–80), P = 0.21; postoperative change of CXA + 14.4° (8.8, 0–30) versus 16.2° (12.4, −4–38), P = 0.43; change of pB-C2 − 2.6 mm (1.8, −-5.3 to 0) versus − 1.2 mm (4, −4.6–8), P = 0.26; and postoperative C2C7 sagittal Cobb angle − 2.6° (19.5, −43–39) versus − 2.6° (11.4, −21–12). Operative complications were seen in 1 out of 13 patients (8%) versus 2 out of 13 patients (16%), P = 1. Conclusions: In EDS, patients with CCI undergoing CCF radiographic and clinical outcome were similar between those with OC versus OB fixation. Both techniques resulted in sufficient correction of pB-C2 and CXA measurements with a low complication rate.

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