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Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 336-360

Primary extradural tumors of the spinal column: A comprehensive treatment guide for the spine surgeon based on the 5th Edition of the World Health Organization bone and soft-tissue tumor classification

1 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine – The Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, USA
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Cantonal Hospital Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland
3 Department of Radiation Oncology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, USA
4 Department of Pathology, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, USA
5 Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland
6 Department of Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
7 Department of Neurosurgery, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, USA

Correspondence Address:
Alexander Spiessberger
Department of Neurosurgery, North Shore University Hospital, 300 Community Drive, Manhasset, NY 11030
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcvjs.jcvjs_115_21

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Background: In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the 5th version of the soft tissue and bone tumor classification. Based on this novel classification system, we reviewed the current knowledge on all tumor entities with spinal manifestations, their biologic behavior, and most importantly the appropriate treatment options as well as surgical approaches. Methods: All tumor entities were extracted from the WHO Soft-Tissue and Bone Tumor Classification (5th Edition). PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for the published cases of spinal tumor manifestations for each entity, and the following characteristics were extracted: Growth pattern, ability to metastasize, peak age, incidence, treatment, type of surgical resection indicated, recurrence rate, risk factors, 5-year survival rate, key molecular or genetic alterations, and possible associated tumor syndromes. Surgical treatment strategies as well as nonsurgical treatment recommendations are presented based on the biologic behavior of each lesion. Results: Out of 163 primary tumor entities of bone and soft tissue, 92 lesions have been reported along the spinal axis. Of these 92 entities, 54 have the potential to metastasize. The peak age ranges from conatal lesions to 72 years. For each tumor entity, we present recommended surgical treatment strategies based on the ability to locally destruct tissue, to grow, recur after resection, undergo malignant transformation as well as survival rates. In addition, potential systemic treatment recommendations for each tumor entity are outlined. Conclusion: Based on the 5th Edition of the WHO bone and soft tumor classification, we identified 92 out of 163 tumor entities, which potentially can have spinal manifestations. Exact preoperative tissue diagnosis and interdisciplinary case discussions are crucial. Surgical resection is indicated in a significant subset of patients and has to be tailored to the specific biologic behavior of the targeted tumor entity based on the considerations outlined in detail in this article.

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