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Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 159-162

C1-C2 arthroplasty for craniovertebral junction instability: A preliminary proof of concept in human cadavers


1 Department of Neurosurgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Bioengineering, Engineering Center for Orthopaedic Research Excellence, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, USA

Correspondence Address:
Madhivanan Karthigeyan
Department of Neurosurgery, PGIMER, Sector 12, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcvjs.jcvjs_33_22

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Background: The atlantoaxial complex contributes to significant neck movements, especially the axial rotation. Its instability is currently treated with various C1-C2 fusion techniques. This however, considerably hampers the neck movements and affects the quality of life; a C1-C2 motion preserving arthroplasty could potentially overcome this drawback. Objectives: We evaluate the range of motion (ROM) of lateral C1-C2 artificial joints in cadaveric models. Materials and Methods: This is an in vitro cadaveric biomechanical study. After C1-C2 arthroplasty through a posterior approach, the C1-C2 ROM was tested in 4 fresh-frozen human cadaveric specimens, before and after destabilization. Results: The mean axial rotation demonstrated after the placement of C1-C2 joint implants was 15.46 degrees on the right and 16.03 degrees on the left side; the prosthesis provided stability, with 46% of the baseline C1-C2 axial rotation on either side. The ROM achieved in the other axes was less compared with that of intact specimens. To initiate rotation, a higher moment of 1.5 Nm was required in the presence of joint implants compared to 0.5 NM in unimplanted specimens. Conclusions: In our preliminary ROM evaluation, the C1-C2 arthroplasty appears to be stable and provides about half of the range of atlantoaxial rotation. It has the potential for joint motion preservation in the treatment of atlantoaxial instability resulting from lateral C1-C2 joint pathologies.


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