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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-September 2021
Volume 12 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 213-321

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Is disc herniation “secondary” to spinal instability? Is it a protective natural response? p. 213
Atul Goel
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Clinical outcome following multisegmental cervical spinal fixation in patients who recovered partially following injury p. 216
Atul Goel, Aditya Lunawat, Abhidha Shah, Saswat Dandpat, Akshay Hawaldar, Hardik Darji, Nishit Trivedi
Objective: The clinical outcome following multilevel stabilization in patients who suffered cervical spinal injury and developed severe neurological deficits and then gradually partially recovered is evaluated. The basis of the surgical concept was that cervical spinal degeneration is a result of single or multilevel spinal instability and that spinal trauma exaggerates the instability. Materials and Methods: During the period 2015–2020, 14 patients who suffered severe cervical spinal injury and could be included in the classification of spinal cord injury without computed tomography evidence of trauma were surgically treated. There were 11 males and 3 females. The ages ranged from 45 to 67 years, average being 53 years. Cervical canal stenoses related to degenerative spinal changes were observed in all patients. All patients suffered severe neurological deficits and within few days or weeks had shown significant but incomplete neurological recovery. The identification of the levels of unstable spinal segments was done on the basis of radiological and clinical parameters and direct observation of spinal instability in adjoining spinal segments. Transarticular fixation was done by Camille's transarticular fixation technique. Using ASIA score, modified JOA score, and Goel Clinical Grading Scale, the clinical course of the patients was monitored. Results: All patients showed recovery in the neurological status. Recovery started in the immediate postoperative period and the improvement progressed during the period of follow-up. Conclusions: Surgery for spinal stabilization can be indicated even in cases that improve in the neurological function.
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Autonomous lumbar spine pedicle screw planning using machine learning: A validation study p. 223
Kris B Siemionow, Craig W Forsthoefel, Michael P Foy, Dominik Gawel, Christian J Luciano
Introduction: Several techniques for pedicle screw placement have been described including freehand techniques, fluoroscopy assisted, computed tomography (CT) guidance, and robotics. Image-guided surgery offers the potential to combine the benefits of CT guidance without the added radiation. This study investigated the ability of a neural network to place lumbar pedicle screws with the correct length, diameter, and angulation autonomously within radiographs without the need for human involvement. Materials and Methods: The neural network was trained using a machine learning process. The method combines the previously reported autonomous spine segmentation solution with a landmark localization solution. The pedicle screw placement was evaluated using the Zdichavsky, Ravi, and Gertzbein grading systems. Results: In total, the program placed 208 pedicle screws between the L1 and S1 spinal levels. Of the 208 placed pedicle screws, 208 (100%) had a Zdichavsky Score 1A, 206 (99.0%) of all screws were Ravi Grade 1, and Gertzbein Grade A indicating no breech. The final two screws (1.0%) had a Ravi score of 2 (<2 mm breech) and a Gertzbein grade of B (<2 mm breech). Conclusion: The results of this experiment can be combined with an image-guided platform to provide an efficient and highly effective method of placing pedicle screws during spinal stabilization surgery.
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Predictive model for achieving good clinical and radiographic outcomes at one-year following surgical correction of adult cervical deformity p. 228
Peter Gust Passias, Samantha R Horn, Cheongeun Oh, Gregory W Poorman, Cole Bortz, Frank Segreto, Renaud Lafage, Bassel Diebo, Justin K Scheer, Justin S Smith, Christopher I Shaffrey, Robert Eastlack, Daniel M Sciubba, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Han Jo Kim, Robert A Hart, Virginie Lafage, Christopher P Ames, International Spine Study Group
Background: For cervical deformity (CD) surgery, goals include realignment, improved patient quality of life, and improved clinical outcomes. There is limited research identifying patients most likely to achieve all three. Objective: The objective is to create a model predicting good 1-year postoperative realignment, quality of life, and clinical outcomes following CD surgery using baseline demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors. Methods: Retrospective review of a multicenter CD database. CD patients were defined as having one of the following radiographic criteria: Cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) >4 cm, cervical kyphosis/scoliosis >10°° or chin-brow vertical angle >25°. The outcome assessed was whether a patient achieved both a good radiographic and clinical outcome. The primary analysis was stepwise regression models which generated a dataset-specific prediction model for achieving a good radiographic and clinical outcome. Model internal validation was achieved by bootstrapping and calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the final model with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Seventy-three CD patients were included (61.8 years, 58.9% F). The final model predicting the achievement of a good overall outcome (radiographic and clinical) yielded an AUC of 73.5% and included the following baseline demographic, clinical, and radiographic factors: mild-moderate myelopathy (Modified Japanese Orthopedic Association >12), no pedicle subtraction osteotomy, no prior cervical spine surgery, posterior lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) at T1 or above, thoracic kyphosis >33°°, T1 slope <16 and cSVA <20 mm. Conclusions: Achievement of a positive outcome in radiographic and clinical outcomes following surgical correction of CD can be predicted with high accuracy using a combination of demographic, clinical, radiographic, and surgical factors, with the top factors being baseline cSVA <20 mm, no prior cervical surgery, and posterior LIV at T1 or above.
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First technical report of a pediatric case with thoracic Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Gross total tumor removal, corpectomy, and 360° stabilization via posterolateral approach at a single stage p. 236
Koral Erdogan, Serdar Solmaz, Ihsan Dogan
Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare nonmalignant disease characterized by a clonal proliferation of mononuclear cells called Langerhans histiocytes and infiltrates surrounding tissues, mostly self-limiting and usually occurring in the first two decades of life. Vertebral involvement is rare, mostly seen in the thoracic region, and involves the anterior elements of the corpus. In the literature, several treatment options and surgical approaches have been reported concerning the treatment of this disease and surgery. Case Presentation: We report an 18-month-old male with thoracic LCH who underwent surgery due to progressive neurological deficit. Gross total removal of the tumor with one level corpectomy in this patient was achieved via a posterolateral approach with postoperative functional improvement. The surgical cavity was supported by corpectomy cage and unilateral screw-rod fixation system at the same stage. Conclusion: Gross total tumor removal, corpectomy, and 360° stabilization via posterolateral approach at a single stage are safe, effective, and definite neurosurgical methods in terms of providing neurological recovery, long-term tumor-free survival, and spinal stability.
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Evaluation of clinicoradiological outcomes of lateral vertebral notch referred pedicular screws entry point in subaxial cervical spine by freehand technique p. 240
Sonone Sandeep, Aditya Anand Dahapute, Sai Gautham Balasubramanian, Piyush Nashikkar, Nandan Marathe, Shalaka Ramesh Sonavane
Purpose: Cervical pedicle screws (CPSs), though associated with complications and steep learning curve, have significantly increased strength and stability as compared to any other posterior instrumentation methods. Using anatomical referral techniques, pedicle screws can be inserted safely with a high accuracy rate obviating the need for anterior stabilization. Our present study aims to investigate the safety and outcomes of lateral vertebral notch (LVN) referred entry point for subaxial CPSs by freehand technique. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied 22 patients who underwent CPS fixation. Computed tomography (CT) scan with angiography was done in each case to know the anatomy, characteristics, and anomalies of each pedicle. Postoperative CT scan was done to look for any breach in cervical pedicles. We used free hand technique for insertion of subaxial cervical pedicles taking LVN as a reference point. The authors used the medial wall of the cervical pedicles as a safe guide for the probes that walked along it. Results: Eighty screws were inserted in total in the study group. Mean angle of screw with sagittal axis of vertebrae was 23.43° ± 9.279°. Range of angle used was 6°–40°. Perforation occurred in 11 pedicle screws: C3 (2 out of 8, 25%), c5 (3 out of 20, 15%), and c4 (4 of 22, 18%). Out of 11 perforations, four were complete and seven were partial perforations. One complete medial perforation was associated with radiculopathy that required revision. Conclusion: The technique described in the study can be considered relatively safe, easy, and reliable method of inserting cervical pedicle screws with high accuracy (86.25%) and low complication rates (1.25%). However, meticulous preoperative planning is required.
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Surgical treatment outcome on a national cohort of 176 patients with cervical manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis p. 248
Anna MacDowall, Laszlo Barany, Gergely Bodon
Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affecting the cervical spine results in instability and deformity that can be divided into the subtypes C1–C2 horizontal (atlantoaxial instability), C0–C2 vertical (basilar invagination), subaxial, and combined instabilities. The aim of this study was to compare the surgical treatments and outcomes of RA-related deformity and instability in a population-based setting. Patients and Methods: All patients with RA in the national Swespine register from January 1, 2006, to March 20, 2019, were assessed. Baseline characteristics, surgical treatments, European Myelopathy Scale (EMS), Neck Disability Index, the Visual Analog Scale for neck and arm pain as well as pre- and postoperative imaging were analyzed. The follow-up time points were at 1-, 2-, and 5 years after surgery. Results: A total of 176 patients were included. There were 62 (35%) patients with C1–C2 horizontal instability, 48 (27%) with C0–C2 vertical instability, 19 (11%) patients with subaxial instability, 43 (24%) patients with combined instability, and 4 patients without instability served as controls. The EMS improved in the C1–C2 horizontal instability group after fusion surgery (Δ =2.6 p) but remained within baseline confidence intervals in the other groups. All patients regardless of instability improved in pain. The subaxial instability had the highest risk of death within 5 years after surgery (11/19, 58%). The most dangerous complications due to implant failure were seen in patients instrumented with laminar hooks. Conclusion: The neurological outcome after fusion surgery is poor and the death rate is high in patients with cervical RA-related instability and deformity.
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Diagnostic Accuracy and Prognostic Significance of Point-Of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) for Traumatic Cervical Spine in Emergency care setting: A Comparison of clinical outcomes between POCUS and Computed Tomography on a Cohort of 284 Cases and Review of Literature p. 257
Reddy Ravikanth
Background: The cervical spine is injured in approximately 3% of major trauma patients, and 10% of patients with serious head injury. Therefore, clearance of the cervical spine in multitrauma patients is a critically important task. This is particularly important, considering that there is a positive correlation between a Glasgow Coma Scale of <14 and cervical spine injury. Radiography is not sensitive enough to rule out cervical spine injury, especially as radiography done in the trauma setting is usually technically unsatisfactory. Objective: The current study aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of using bedside point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in traumatic cervical spine injuries compared to computed tomography (CT) as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: This comparative study enrolled 284 patients with severe multiple trauma at a tertiary care center between July 2017 and March 2020. The inclusion criteria included an indication of cervical spine CT scan, satisfaction of patients with participation in the study, and the lack of history of injury and severe traumatic events. The exclusion criteria were the history of a previous cervical spinal trauma, spondylosis, scoliosis, spinal tuberculosis, degenerative vertebral changes, and patients who refused to give consent to participate in research or CT scanning. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, and sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value (NPV) were determined based on CT findings. Results: The best window for the cervical spine was through the anterior triangle using the linear array probe (6–13 MHz). POCUS had a sensitivity of 78.5%, specificity of 98.4%, PPV of 93.2%, NPV of 92.8%, and accuracy of 93.2% in detecting all types of spinal injuries in comparison with CT scan as the standard modality. POCUS had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 92.3%, PPV of 62.3%, NPV of 100%, and accuracy of 91.7% in cases with the movement of injured particles. POCUS had a sensitivity of 32.2%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 91.4%, and accuracy of 90.8% in detecting the fracture of transverse process. POCUS had a sensitivity of 36.1%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 98.1%, and accuracy of 98.4% in ≤14-year age multitrauma patients. In comparison, the current study achieved a sensitivity of 79.4%, specificity of 95.7%, PPV of 92.1%, NPV of 86.3%, and accuracy of 88.6% in >14-year age multitrauma patients. Conclusion: POCUS for cervical spine is feasible using portable ultrasound machine and by neurosurgeons/radiologists/emergency physicians with basic training. It holds great potential in resource-starved settings and in unstable patients for ruling out unstable cervical spine injuries and injuries associated with the movement of fractured or dislocated particles. POCUS examination of the cervical spine was possible in the emergency setting and even in unstable patients and could be done without moving the neck. Future studies, ideally conducted as randomized control trials, are required to establish training and education standards, and to assess the feasibility and safety of POCUS as an alternative to radiography.
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Risk-benefit assessment of major versus minor osteotomies for flexible and rigid cervical deformity correction p. 263
Peter Gust Passias, Lara Passfall, Samantha R Horn, Katherine E Pierce, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Justin S Smith, Breton G Line, Gregory M Mundis, Robert Eastlack, Bassel G Diebo, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Han Jo Kim, Justin Scheer, Douglas C Burton, Robert A Hart, Frank J Schwab, Shay Bess, Christopher P Ames, Christopher I Shaffrey, On Behalf of the International Spine Study Group
Introduction: Osteotomies are commonly performed to correct sagittal malalignment in cervical deformity (CD). However, the risks and benefits of performing a major osteotomy for cervical deformity correction have been understudied. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the risks and benefits of performing a major osteotomy for CD correction. Methods: Patients stratified based on major osteotomy (MAJ) or minor (MIN). Independent t-tests and Chi-squared tests were used to assess differences between MAJ and MIN. A sub-analysis compared patients with flexible versus rigid CL. Results: 137 CD patients were included (62 years, 65% F). 19.0% CD patients underwent a MAJ osteotomy. After propensity score matching for cSVA, 52 patients were included. About 19.0% CD patients underwent a MAJ osteotomy. MAJ patients had more minor complications (P = 0.045), despite similar surgical outcomes as MIN. At 3M, MAJ and MIN patients had similar NDI, mJOA, and EQ5D scores, however by 1 year, MAJ patients reached MCID for NDI less than MIN patients (P = 0.003). MAJ patients with rigid deformities had higher rates of complications (79% vs. 29%, P = 0.056) and were less likely to show improvement in NDI at 1 year (0.95 vs. 0.54, P = 0.027). Both groups had similar sagittal realignment at 1 year (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: Cervical deformity patients who underwent a major osteotomy had similar clinical outcomes at 3-months but worse outcomes at 1-year as compared to minor osteotomies, likely due to differences in baseline deformity. Patients with rigid deformities who underwent a major osteotomy had higher complication rates and worse clinical improvement despite similar realignment at 1 year.
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Intramedullary spinal cord tumors: A retrospective multicentric study p. 269
Anis Hachicha, Ala Belhaj, Nadhir Karmeni, Abdelhafidh Slimane, Sofiene Bouali, Jalel Kallel
Context: Intramedullary tumors are neoformations taking part on the spinal cord, and they are a rare pathology. Due to the rarity of such lesions, clinical studies take years to ensure a decent feedback with a significant number of cases. Design: Our study is retrospective and descriptive. Participants: We share a Tunisian multicentric experience of 27 years through a retrospective study of 120 cases of spinal cord tumors that have been operated in six different centers. Outcome Measures: The clinical, radiological, and histological findings have been analyzed along with postoperative results and tumoral progression so that we could conclude to some factors of prognosis concerning the management of these tumors. Results: The mean age of our patients is 33.84 years. We had 57 males and 63 females. The most frequent revealing symptom was motor trouble presented as frequent as 77.5% of the patients. Glial tumors were represented in 81 of the cases (67.5%) and nonglial by 39 cases (32.5%). Glial tumors we found were essentially 39 ependymomas and 35 astrocytomas. Surgical resection is key in the management of these lesions; the quality of tumoral resection was a significant factor of disease progression as subtotal resection is correlated to more important progression than total one. Conclusion: We conclude this work with some statements. In terms of functional results, age is not a significant factor. Presurgical functional state, the histological type, and the extent of surgical resection are the important factors.
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Cervical deformity patients with baseline hyperlordosis or hyperkyphosis differ in surgical treatment and radiographic outcomes p. 279
Haddy Alas, Peter Gust Passias, Bassel G Diebo, Avery E Brown, Katherine E Pierce, Cole Bortz, Renaud Lafage, Christopher P Ames, Breton Line, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Juan S Uribe, Han Jo Kim, Alan H Daniels, Shay Bess, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Gregory M Mundis, Christopher I Shaffrey, Frank J Schwab, Justin S Smith, Virginie Lafage
Introduction: Patients with symptomatic cervical deformity (CD) requiring surgical correction often present with hyperkyphosis (HK), though patients with hyperlordotic curves may require surgery as well. Few studies have investigated differences in CD-corrective surgery with regards to HK and hyperlordosis (HL). Materials and Methods: Operative CD patients (C2-C7 Cobb >10°, cervical lordosis [CL] >10°, cervical sagittal vertical axis [cSVA] >4 cm, chin-brow vertical angle >25°) with baseline (BL) and 1Y radiographic data. Patients were stratified based on BL C2-7 lordosis (CL) angle: those >1 standard deviation (SD) from the mean (−6.96° ±21.47°) were hyperlordotic (>14.51°) or hyperkyphotic (≤28.43°) depending on directionality. Patients within 1 SD were considered the control group. Results: One hundred and two surgical CD pts (61 years, 65%F, 30 kg/m2) with BL and 1Y radiographic data were included. Twenty pts met definitions for HK and 21 pts met definitions for HL. No differences in demographics or disability were noted. HK had higher estimated blood loss (EBL) with anterior approaches than HL but similar EBL with the posterior approach. Op-time did not differ between groups. Control, HL, and HK groups differed in BL TS-CL (36.6° vs. 22.5° vs. 60.7°, P < 0.001) and BL-sagittal vertical axis (SVA) (10.8 vs. 7.0 vs. −47.8 mm, P = 0.001). HL pts had less discectomies, less corpectomies, and similar osteotomy rates to HK. HL had × 3 revisions of HK and controls (28.6 vs. 10.0 vs. 9.2%, respectively, P = 0.046). At 1Y, HL pts had higher cSVA, and trended higher SVA and SS than HK. In terms of BL-upper cervical alignment, HK pts had higher McGregor's-slope (16.1° vs. −3.3°, P = 0.001) and C0-C2 Cobb (43.3° vs. 26.9°, P < 0.001), however postoperative differences in McGregor's slope and C0-C2 were not significant. HK drivers of deformity were primarily C (90%), whereas HL had primary computed tomography (38.1%), upper thoracic (23.8%), and C (14.3%) drivers. Conclusions: Hyperlodotic patients trended higher revision rates with greater radiographic malalignment at 1Y postoperative, perhaps due to undercorrection compared to kyphotic etiologies.
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Outcomes and survival of spinal metastasis with epidural compression p. 287
Priscila Barile Marchi Candido, Fernanda Maris Peria, Rômulo Pedroza Pinheiro, Herton Rodrigo Tavares Costa, Helton Luiz Aaparecido Defino
Objective: The goal of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the demographics, clinical manifestation, outcomes, treatment result, and survival of patients with spinal metastasis with epidural metastasis who underwent surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: A retrospective evaluation of 103 patients with spinal metastasis and epidural compression who underwent surgical treatment between 2009 and 2015 was performed. The recorded parameters selected for the study were general demographic data (gender, age, and educational level) and clinical data (primary tumor, performance status according to Karnofsky score, neurological status according to Frankel scale, pain, surgical treatment outcomes, and patient survival). Results: The mean age of the patients was 55.28 ± 15.79 years, and spinal metastasis was more frequent in males (61.7%). The two most frequent tumors were malignant breast cancer (26.21%) and prostate cancer (22.33%). Preoperative pain was presented in 96 (94.12%) patients and improvement was observed in 44 (47.31%) patients. Symptoms of spinal cord compression were the initial clinical manifestation of the primary tumor in 35 (33.98%) patients. Neurological deficit was observed in 66 (64.07%) patients, and improvement was observed in 43 (41.74%) patients. Improvement of functional outcome and pain was observed in 34 (37.38%) patients. The mean survival was 12.26 months. Longer survival (mean 19.13 months) was observed in patients who showed improvement in their ability to walk or kept it preserved (Frankel D or E). Conclusions: Surgical treatment of spinal metastasis can improve pain and functional activities. Longer survival was observed in patients that keep or recovery the walking ability.
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Minimally invasive corpectomy and percutaneous transpedicular stabilization in the treatment of patients with unstable injures of the thoracolumbar spine: Results of retrospective case series p. 294
Vadim A Byvaltsev, Andrei A Kalinin, Roman A Polkin, Valerii V Shepelev, Marat A Aliyev, Yermek K Dyussembekov
Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the results of surgical treatment of patients with unstable injuries of the thoracolumbar spine using simultaneous minimally invasive corpectomy and percutaneous transpedicular stabilization. Materials and Methods: The retrospective study included 34 patients with isolated single-level unstable injuries of the thoracolumbar spine (5 or more points according to the Thoracolumbar Injury Classification and Severity Score (TLICS), operated on from the moment of injury from 8 to 24 h using the technique of minimally invasive corpectomy and percutaneous transpedicular stabilization simultaneously. The technical features of surgery, clinical data (pain level according to the Visual Analog Scale, quality of life according to the SF-36 questionnaire, subjective satisfaction with the operation according to the MacNab scale, and the presence of complications), and instrumental data (angle of segmental kyphotic deformity and sagittal index to and after surgery). The assessment of clinical data was carried out before surgery, at discharge, after 6 months, and in the long-term period, on average, 30 months after surgery. Results: When evaluating the clinical data, a significant decrease in the severity of pain syndrome was found on average from 90 mm to 5.5 mm in the late follow-up (P < 0.001), as well as a significant improvement in the physical and psychological components of health according to the SF-36 questionnaire on average from 28.78 to 39.26 (P < 0.001), from 36.93 to 41.43 (P = 0.006), respectively. In the long-term period, according to the MacNab scale, the patients noted the result of the operation: excellent – 18 (52.9%), good – 13 (38.3%), and satisfactory – 3 (8.8%); no unsatisfactory results were registered. Four (11.8%) perioperative surgical complications were registered, which were successfully treated conservatively. A significant restoration of the sagittal profile with an insignificant change in blood pressure was recorded in the long-term postoperative period. An average follow-up assessment of 30 months according to the American Spinal Injury Association scale showed the presence of E and D degrees in 85.4% of patients. Conclusion: Minimally invasive corpectomy with percutaneous transpedicular stabilization in the treatment of patients with unstable injuries of the thoracolumbar spine can effectively eliminate kyphotic deformity and prevent the loss of its reduction with a low number of postoperative surgical complications. The technique has minimal surgical trauma with the possibility of early postoperative rehabilitation and provides a significant stable reduction in vertebrogenic pain syndrome, improvement of neurological deficits, and restoration of the quality of life of patients and in the follow-up.
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Novel use of percutaneous cervical pedicle inlet screws for supplemental posterior fixation after anterior cervical deformity correction p. 302
Aaron Gelinne, Andrew L Abumoussa, Cole A Sloboda, Deb A Bhowmick
Introduction: Correction of cervical deformity can be achieved using anterior cervical fixation and fusion techniques. However, supplemental posterior fixation is a critical component for ensuring biomechanical longevity and favorable patient outcomes. We present a novel percutaneous technique for posterior cervical fixation in patients where cervical pedicle (CP) screws may not be feasible and midline muscle dissection is not needed. Methods: Three patients presented to our hospital with cervical pathology amendable to circumferential cervical fusion. After adequate deformity correction was performed through an anterior cervical decompression and fusion, staged posterior supplemental fixation was achieved using percutaneous CP inlet (CPI) screws using a percutaneous muscle-sparing approach. Results: All three patients underwent CPI screw placement without postoperative neurovascular complications. Postoperative radiographic follow-up showed the desired, proper screw placement, with continued maintained cervical alignment. Conclusions: CPI screw placement may be alternative hybrid screw that achieves a advantageous safety profile while also avoiding an open midline exposure.
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The impact of the lower instrumented level on outcomes in cervical deformity surgery p. 306
Peter Gust Passias, Haddy Alas, Katherine E Pierce, Matthew Galetta, Oscar Krol, Lara Passfall, Nicholas Kummer, Sara Naessig, Waleed Ahmad, Bassel G Diebo, Renaud Lafage, Virginie Lafage
Background: The lower instrumented vertebrae (LIVs) in cervical deformity (CD) constructs may have varying effects on patient outcomes that are still poorly understood. Objective: The objective of the study is to compare outcomes in CD patients undergoing instrumented correction according to the relation of LIV with primary driver (PD). Methods: Patients who met radiographic criteria for CD were included in the study. Patients were stratified by PD of deformity: cervical (C) through AMES classification (TS-CL >20 or cervical sagittal vertical axis >40) and thoracic (T) through hyper/hypokyphosis (TK) from T4-T12 (60 < TK < 40). Patients were further stratified by LIV in relation to curve apex (above/below). Univariate and multivariate analyses identified group differences in postoperative health-related quality-of-life and distal junctional kyphosis (DJK) (>10° LIV and LIV + 2) rate up to 1 year. Results: Sixty-two patients were analyzed. Twenty-one patients had a C-PD and 41 had a T-PD by definition. 100% of C-PDs had LIVs below CL apex, while 9.2% of T-PDs had LIVs below (caudal) to TK apex and 90.8% had LIVs above TK apex. By 1 year, C patients trended lower Neck Disability Index (NDI) (21.9 vs. 29.0, P = 0.245), lower numeric rating scales neck pain (4.2 vs. 5.1, P = 0.358), and significantly higher EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire Visual Analog Scale (69.2 vs. 52.4, P = 0.040). When T patients with LIVs below TK apex were excluded, remaining T patients with LIV above apex had significantly higher 1-year NDI than C patients (37.5 vs. 21.9, P = .05). T patients also trended higher rates of postoperative DJK than C (19.5% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.119). Conclusions: Stopping before apex was more common in patients with a primary thoracic driver (T) and associated with deleterious effects. Primary cervical driver (C) tended to have LIVs inclusive of CL apex with lower rates of DJK.
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Prioritization of realignment associated with superior clinical outcomes for surgical cervical deformity patients p. 311
Katherine E Pierce, Peter Gust Passias, Avery E Brown, Cole A Bortz, Haddy Alas, Renaud Lafage, Oscar Krol, Dean Chou, Douglas C Burton, Breton Line, Eric Klineberg, Robert Hart, Jeffrey Gum, Alan Daniels, Kojo Hamilton, Shay Bess, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Christopher Shaffrey, Frank A Schwab, Justin S Smith, Virginie Lafage, Christopher Ames, International Spine Study Group
Background: To optimize quality of life in patients with cervical deformity (CD), there may be alignment targets to be prioritized. Objective: To prioritize the cervical parameter targets for alignment. Methods: Included: CD patients (C2–C7 Cobb >10°°, C2–C7 lordosis [CL] >10°°, cSVA > 4 cm, or chin-brow vertical angle >25°°) with full baseline (BL) and 1-year (1Y) radiographic parameters and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores; patients with cervical (C) or cervicothoracic (CT) Primary Driver Ames type. Patients with BL Ames classified as low CD for both parameters of cSVA (<4 cm) and T1 slope minus CL (TS-CL) (<15°°) were excluded. Patients assessed: Meeting Minimal Clinically Important Difference (MCID) for NDI (<−15 ΔNDI). Ratios of correction were found for regional parameters categorized by Primary Ames Driver (C or CT). Decision tree analysis assessed cut-offs for differences associated with meeting NDI MCID at 1Y. Results: Seventy-seven CD patients (62.1 years, 64%F, 28.8 kg/m2). 41.6% met MCID for NDI. A backward linear regression model including radiographic differences as predictors from BL to 1Y for meeting MCID for NDI demonstrated an R2 = 0.820 (P = 0.032) included TS-CL, cSVA, MGS, C2SS, C2-T3 angle, C2-T3 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), CL. By primary Ames driver, 67.5% of patients were C, and 32.5% CT. Ratios of change in predictors for MCID NDI patients for C and CT were not significant between the two groups (P > 0.050). Decision tree analysis determined cut-offs for radiographic change, prioritizing in the following order: ≥42.5° C2-T3 angle, >35.4° CL, <−31.76° C2 slope, <−11.57 mm cSVA, <−2.16° MGS, >−30.8 mm C2-T3 SVA, and ≤−33.6° TS-CL. Conclusions: Certain ratios of correction of cervical parameters contribute to improving neck disability. Prioritizing these radiographic alignment parameters may help optimize patient-reported outcomes for patients undergoing CD surgery.
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Two-stage posterior decompression and fusion for tuberculous spondylitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillation p. 318
Hiroki Ohata, David Prakasa, Hiroyuki Goto, Kenji Ohata, Takeo Goto, Misao Nishikawa
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is an effective treatment for nonmuscle invasive superficial bladder cancer. BCG induces a massive influx of inflammatory cells and production of cytokines in the bladder mucosa and lumen that leads to an immune response against tumor cells, acting as an immunotherapy. Cystitis, bladder ulceration, and bladder contracture are known local genitourinary complications, whereas systemic complications such as miliary pulmonary tuberculosis, mycotic aneurysms, tuberculous spondylodiscitis, and granulomatous hepatitis are very rare. A case of tuberculous spondylodiscitis at the T8 and T9 levels following intravesical BCG instillation for bladder carcinoma is reported. The patient initially underwent decompressive laminectomy for spastic paraparesis. After reporting improvement for few weeks, the patient again presented with similar complaints and was found to have an increased kyphotic deformity, for which he underwent fixation surgery.
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