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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2011| July-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 24, 2012

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'Only fixation' as rationale treatment for spinal canal stenosis
Atul Goel
July-December 2011, 2(2):55-56
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100049  PMID:23125488
  24 4,629 113
Penetrating spinal injuries and their management
A Kumar, PN Pandey, A Ghani, G Jaiswal
July-December 2011, 2(2):57-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100052  PMID:23125489
Penetrating spinal trauma due to missile/gunshot injuries has been well reported in the literature and has remained the domain of military warfare more often. Civic society's recent upsurge in gunshot injuries has created a dilemma for the treating neurosurgeon in many ways as their management has always involved certain debatable and controversial issues. Both conservative and surgical management of penetrating spinal injuries (PSI) have been practiced widely. The chief neurosurgical concern in these types of firearm injuries is the degree of damage sustained during the bullet traversing through the neural tissue and the after-effects of the same in long term. We had an interesting case of a penetrating bullet injury to cervical spine at C2 vertebral level. He was operated and the bullets were removed from posterior midline approach. Usually, the management of such cases differs from region to region depending on the preference of the surgeon but still certain common principles are followed world over. Thus, we realized the need to review the literature regarding spinal injuries with special emphasis on PSI and to study the recent guidelines for their treatment in light of our case.
  10 6,112 129
Evaluation of the subaxial injury classification system
AF Joaquim, B Lawrence, M Daubs, D Brodke, AA Patel
July-December 2011, 2(2):67-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100057  PMID:23125491
Study design : Retrospective clinical study of patients treated for subaxial cervical spine trauma (SCST) at a tertiary medical center. Purpose : Evaluate the validity of the Subaxial Injury Classification (SLIC) system in surgical versus non-surgical decision making for SCST. Inclusion criteria : Age >12 years, presence of SCST with complete clinical and radiological (CT and MRI) data. Exclusion criteria : Patients with incomplete radiographic or clinical data, pathological fractures, isolated upper cervical trauma (occiput to C2), isolated transverse process or spinous process fractures, chronic or age indeterminate fractures, isolate MRI findings, and severe systemic trauma with death prior to either surgical or non-surgical treatment. Results : Fourteen patients were treated non-surgically (C), whereas 24 were treated surgically (S). In the C group, the SLIC score ranged from 0 to 5 points (standard deviation [SD] = 1.20 points; mean 1.07; median 1). Just 1 patient had an SLIC score greater than 2 (7.1% of the patients). In the S group, the SLIC score ranged from 1 to 10 points (standard deviation [SD] = 2.03 points; mean 5.6; median 6). Just 2 patients had an SLIC score smaller than 4 (both with 1 point each, 8.3% of the total group). All the other 22 (accounting for 91.6%) patients had an SLIC of 4 or more points. Conclusions : Our study suggests that the SLIC classification looks to be a promising system to aid spinal surgeons in the decision-making process of subaxial cervical trauma, but a large prospective cohort study is required.
  9 5,560 84
Cervical vertebrae anomalies in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion
Shahin Emami Meibodi, Hadi Parhiz, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar Motamedi, Asal Fetrati, Elham Morshedi Meibodi, Arash Meshkat
July-December 2011, 2(2):73-76
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100059  PMID:23125492
Background and Objective : Studies have documented that deviations in skeletal components such as the cranial base, the mid-facial complex and the mandible may be associated with morphological factors in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion. Furthermore, deviations in head and neck posture may be associated with the class III skeletal malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to compare cervical vertebrae morphology in patients with class III skeletal malocclusion and adults with normal occlusion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study assessed 30 patients with class III skeletal malocclusion (aged 17-30 yrs, with normal vertical growth pattern and ANB<0) were compared with 46 controls (aged 17-30 years, with normal vertical growth pattern, ANB=3+1). Cervical vertebrae anomalies (fusion anomalies and posterior arch deficiency) were assessed via evaluation of their lateral cephalograms. The t- test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In the study group, 73.3% had fusion of the body of the cervical vertebrae, while in the control group only 32.6% showed fusion. The fusion in the control group was between C2 and C3 in all cases; whereas, in the study group, fusion was seen between C2-C3, C3-C¬4 or C4-C¬5. Additionally, cervical column deviations occurred significantly more often in the study group compared to the control group (P<0.001). Conclusion : Class III skeletal malocclusion may be associated with fusion of cervical vertebrae and deviation of the cervical column.
  4 5,251 88
One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis
Hikmet Turan Suslu, Erhan Celikoglu, Ali Borekci, Tufan Hicdonmez, Hüsnü Suslu
July-December 2011, 2(2):89-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100066  PMID:23125496
Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches.
  3 11,221 123
Normal variation of diffusion tensor parameters of the spinal cord in healthy subjects at 3.0-Tesla
T Uda, T Takami, S Sakamoto, N Tsuyuguchi, T Yamagata, K Ohata
July-December 2011, 2(2):77-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100060  PMID:23125493
Aims: The purposes of the present study were to clarify the normal variation and to determine the normal reference values of diffusion tensor (DT) parameters (mean diffusivity [MD] and fractional anisotropy [FA]) of the spinal cord in single-shot fast spin-echo-based sequence at 3.0-Tesla (3T). Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects (mean age = 44.2 years, range = 20-72 years) were enrolled for this study. Mean values of MD and FA in six spinal levels (C2/3, C3/4, C4/5, C5/6, C6/7, and C7/Th1) were measured. Mean values, variances, and distributions of the MD and FA in each spinal level were analyzed. Age-dependent change of MD and FA as well as correlation between MD and FA was also analyzed. Results: At all spinal levels, the values can be considered to be Gaussian distribution in MD but not in FA. A significant statistical negative correlation was observed between aging and the values of MD (r = 0.429, P = 0.018), but insignificant between the values of FA (P = 0.234). A slight significant statistical negative correlation was observed between the values of MD and FA (r = 0.156, P = 0.037). One way repeated measures analysis of variance indicated the significant difference between the spinal levels in both MD (P = 0.003) and FA (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The analyzed data in the present study would be helpful for comparison when investigating the spinal condition of spinal disorders.
  3 4,149 62
Activ C cervical disc replacement for myelopathy
L McGonagle, S Cadman, SD Chitgopkar, L Canavan, M O'Malley, IM Shackleford
July-December 2011, 2(2):82-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100062  PMID:23125494
Background: Cervical disc replacement is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option for cervical myelopathy. It retains motion at the affected segment, unlike anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of a series of patients who underwent Activ C disc replacement for cervical myelopathy. Materials and Methods: A series of patients at the above Trust with clinical and radiological evidence of cervical myelopathy who were suitable for cervical disc replacement from 2007 to 2009 were included. Implants were inserted by one of two consultant surgeons {IMS, MO'M}. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at six, 12 and 24 months, postoperatively, with a visual analogue score (VAS) for neck and arm pain severity and frequency, the Neck Disability Index questionnaire (NDI) and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression questionnaire (CES-D). Results: Ten patients underwent surgery between May 2007 and July 2009, 6 women, and 4 men. Average age was 54 years (40-64). Disc levels replaced were: four at C4-5; eight at C5-6; seven at C6-7. Three patients had one disc replaced, five patients had two discs replaced, and two patients had three discs replaced. The VAS for neck pain improved from 5.9 pre-operatively to 1.4-24 months postoperatively and the VAS arm pain improved from 5.4 to 2.6. The NDI improved from 51% preoperatively to 26.8% at 24 months postoperatively. The CES-D showed a slight increase from 19.5 preoperatively to 21.7 at 24 months, postoperatively. Conclusion: Cervical decompression and disc replacement improves pain and function in patients with cervical myelopathy. This benefit is maintained at 24 months post op, with no cases requiring revision.
  3 6,666 73
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis involving posterior elements of the dorsal spine: An unusual cause of extradural spinal mass in an adult
Devendra K Tyagi, Srikant Balasubramaniam, Hemant V Savant
July-December 2011, 2(2):93-95
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100067  PMID:23125497
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells occurring as an isolated lesion or as part of a systemic proliferation. It is commoner in children younger than 10 years of age with sparing of the posterior elements in more than 95% of cases. We describe a case of LCH in an adult female presenting with paraplegia. MRI revealed a well-defined extradural contrast enhancing mass at D2-D4 vertebral level involving the posterior elements of spine. D2-5 laminectomy with excision of lesion was performed which lead to marked improvement of patients neurological status. Histopathology was suggestive of eosinophilic granuloma. We describe the case, discuss its uniqueness and review the literature on this rare tumor presentation.
  1 4,937 53
The transparaspinal approach: A novel technique for one-step removal of dumb-bell-shaped spinal tumors
Deepak Kumar Singh, Neha Singh, Manu Rastogi, Mazhar Husain
July-December 2011, 2(2):96-98
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100072  PMID:23125498
Complex dumb-bell spinal tumors are challenging surgical lesions. Combined antero-posterior exposures have traditionally been used in their management. This combined exposure has the disadvantage of a two-stage operation with transthoracic or retroperitoneal dissection. With better understanding of biomechanics of spine and evolution of microsurgical technique, there has been resurgence of single stage surgeries, among which the transparaspinal exposure provides the simplest and the most direct route for resection of dumb-bell tumors. A 16-year-old male was admitted with history of back pain with radiation to left lower limb for 6 months, progressive weakness of both lower limbs for two months, and hesitancy of micturition for 1 month. A clinical diagnosis of cauda-conus lesion was made. Radiological investigations revealed a complex dumb-bell spinal tumor extending from lower part of L2-L4 vertebra, with large paraspinal extension through left L3 intervertebral foramina. Tumor was successfully removed in one step using a transparaspinal approach. We discuss technical details of this novel approach along with limitations and possible complications.
  1 5,711 58
Aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine mimicking spinal tuberculosis
Shobhit Mathur, Yashant Aswani, Shilpa S Sankhe, Priya R Hira
July-December 2011, 2(2):99-101
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100073  PMID:23125499
A 22-year-old female presented to our services with back pain and paraparesis for 11 months. She was earlier diagnosed with tuberculosis of spine, and antitubercular chemotherapy was started. However her condition had worsened. Plain and contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans of the thorax and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed heterogenous, lytic, expansile lesion involving third thoracic vertebra with epidural extension and large bilateral paraspinal and mediastinal components. Multiple variably sized loculations with fluid-fluid levels were seen within the lesion. These imaging findings suggestive of aneurysmal bone cyst of thoracic spine were compared with the findings seen 11 months earlier, which were mistaken for spinal tuberculosis. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst. The imaging features, diagnostic challenges and the lessons learned have been briefly discussed.
  - 5,697 62
An interesting clinical association of short neck with an unusual laryngeal anomaly
Rakesh Pinninti, E Thirulogachandar, KH Noorul Ameen
July-December 2011, 2(2):86-88
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100063  PMID:23125495
An elongated high-rising epiglottis can represent a normal variation of the larynx in a majority of pediatric patients. However, there are virtually no reports available for visible or high-rising epiglottis on routine oral examination in adult patients without upper respiratory tract inflammation. We report an unusual case with prominently visible epiglottis on oral examination. We diagnosed him with a rare congenital disorder based on associated physical examination and imaging evidence of short neck, low hair line, Sprengel's anomaly, left digital hypoplasia, restricted neck movements, cervical vertebra fusion, and mirror movements (synkinesia).
  - 9,822 70
Posterior transodontoid fixation (Kotli technique): Not for all odontoid fractures
S Meena
July-December 2011, 2(2):102-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100076  PMID:23125500
  - 2,843 65
The concern on clinical use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-December 2011, 2(2):102-103
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100077  PMID:23125501
  - 2,691 43
Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) as an adjunct for instrumented posterior arthrodesis in the occipital cervical region: An analysis of safety, efficacy and dosing
DK Hamilton, JS Smith, DL Reames, BJ Williams, CI Shaffrey
July-December 2011, 2(2):103-103
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100079  PMID:23125502
  - 2,656 47
Large ventral foramen magnum meningioma: Retrosigmoid suboccipital approach
Rajesh K Ghanta, Ameen Mohammad
July-December 2011, 2(2):103-104
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100081  PMID:23125503
  - 3,028 49
Significant relationship between local angle at fused segments and C2-7 angle: Average duration of longer than 20 years after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion
T Nagata, T Takami, T Yamagata, T Uda, K Naito, K Ohata
July-December 2011, 2(2):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.100054  PMID:23125490
Background : The authors have focused their attention to the radiological durability of cervical sagittal alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous bone grafting. Materials and Methods : Among the patients who underwent ACDF with trans-unco-discal (TUD) approach between 1976 and 1997, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females) made return visits for a clinical evaluation. Patients with trauma or previously treated by anterior cervical fusion or by posterior decompression were excluded from the present study. Clinical evaluation included adjacent segment degeneration (ASD), osseous fusion, local angle at the fused segments and C2-7 angle of cervical spine. Results : The duration after ACDF ranged from 13 to 34 years with an average of 21.3 ± 7.0 years. A single level fusion was done on 8 patients, 2 levels on 11 patients, 3 levels on 2 patients, and 4 levels on 1 patient. Imaging studies indicated that 12 of the 22 patients (54.5%) were graded as having symptomatic ASD. Osseous bony fusion at ACDF was recognized in all cases. None of the patients demonstrated kyphotic malalignment of the cervical spine. Average degrees of local angle at the fused segments and the C2-7 angle were 7.06 and 17.6, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the local at the fused segments and C2-7 angles. Conclusions : Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was durable long after ACDF when the local angle at the fused segments was well stabilized.
  - 5,331 71