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   2012| July-December  | Volume 3 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 16, 2013

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Integrated intervertebral device for anterior cervical fusion: An initial experience
Manish K Kasliwal, John E O'toole
July-December 2012, 3(2):52-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116539  PMID:24082684
Objective: To analyze the clinical and radiographic results following the use of integrated intervertebral implant in patients with cervical spine degenerative disease. Background: Though excellent results have been reported following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using iliac crest autograft/allograft with plating, the morbidity associated with autograft harvest and small chances of complications with plating always exists. Recently, there has been development of a cervical stand-alone cage with integrated fixation for cervical fusion and stabilization with a possible low morbidity and optimal clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 16 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using the integrated intervertebral device was performed. Intra-operative parameters, clinical features [Neck Disability Index (NDI), visual analog scale (VAS) score for neck/arm pain], and presence or absence of dysphagia was recorded. Radiographs were evaluated for assessment of implant failure and fusion. Results: Mean age of patients was 54 years (range: 38-84 years) with male: female ratio of 1:3. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 12 months (mean: 10 months). In the early postoperative period, 2 of the 15 patients (13%) patients had mild dysphagia that resolved during follow-up with no patient having complaints of dysphagia at 3-month follow-up. One of the patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) and severe preoperative dysphagia had significant improvement in swallowing function at 3-month follow-up that was stable at 1-year follow-up. There was no evidence of implant failure, with fusion occurring in 95% (19/20) of operated levels. Analysis of follow-up VAS and NDI scores showed significant reduction in VAS score for neck pain (P < 0.019), radicular arm pain (P < 0.003), and NDI score (P < 0.007) in 77, 92, and 77% of patients, respectively, at a mean follow-up of 10 months (6-12 months). Conclusions: Our preliminary results with the use of this cervical stand-alone anterior fusion device with integrated screw fixation show its efficacy in anterior cervical decompression and fusion with stabilization with optimal clinical and radiographic outcome. Lower chances of dysphagia with no device-related complications are appealing, which needs to be verified in larger studies.
  10,108 56 4
C1-C3 lateral mass fusion for type IIa and type III Hangman's fracture
Natarajan Muthukumar
July-December 2012, 3(2):62-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116541  PMID:24082686
Hangman's fractures, also known as traumatic spondylolisthesis of axis, can be managed either conservatively with immobilization or by surgery. Surgery is usually indicated in cases with instability or failure of conservative treatment. Different surgical approaches, both anterior and posterior, have been described for treating Hangman's fracture. We report two patients, one with type IIa and another with type III Hangman's fracture treated with C1-C3 lateral mass fusion and discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique when compared to other techniques for fusion in patients with Hangman's fracture.
  8,613 54 3
New perspective for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures: Preliminary results at 12 months
Daniele Vanni, Andrea Pantalone, Francesco Bigossi, Filippo Pineto, Danilo Lucantoni, Vincenzo Salini
July-December 2012, 3(2):47-51
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116537  PMID:24082683
Introduction: The prevalence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVF) increased in the last years. Compression fractures promote a progressive spine kyphosis increase, resulting in a weight shift and anterior column overload, with OVF additional risk (domino effect). The aim of this study is to evaluate the OVF treatment outcome using Spine Jack ®, a titanium device for third generation percutaneous vertebral augmentation procedures (PVAPs). Materials and Methods: From February 2010, a prospective randomized study was performed examining 300 patients who underwent PVAP due to OVF type A1 according to Magerl/AO spine classification. Patients enrolled in the study were divided in two homogenous groups with regards to age (65-85 years), sex, and general clinical findings. Group A included 150 patients who underwent PVAP using Spine Jack ® system; the second, group B (control group), included 150 patients treated by conventional balloon kyphoplasty. Patients underwent a clinical (visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index) and radiographic follow-up, with post-operative standing plain radiogram of the spine at 1, 6, and 12 months. The radiographic parameters that were taken into account were: Post-operative anterior vertebral body height, pre-operative anterior vertebral body height, cephalic anterior vertebral body height, and caudal anterior vertebral body height. Results: Compared to the Spine Jack ® group, the kyphoplasty group required a little longer operation time (an average of 40 min-group A vs. 45 min-group B, P < 0.05) and a greater amount of polymethylmethacrylate (4.0 mL-group A vs. 5.0 mL-group B, P < 0.05;). The post-operative increase in vertebral body height was greater in the Spine Jack ® group than in the kyphoplasty group (P < 0.05). Discussion: PVAP are based on the cement injection into the vertebral body. Vertebroplasty does not allow the vertebral body height recovery. Balloon kyphoplasty allows a temporary height restoration. Spine Jack ® has some new features compared to other systems: It is equipped with a mechanical and not a hydraulic opening control; this ensures a gradual and controlled vertebral fracture reduction. Conclusions: In our study, we demonstrated that the third generation PVAP with Spine Jack ® is able to determine a safe vertebral body height restoration compared to the conventional balloon kyphoplasty.
  5,406 76 8
Lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord: A rare case report
SK Jain, I Vijay Sundar, Vinod Sharma, Ravishankar S Goel
July-December 2012, 3(2):73-75
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116551  PMID:24082689
Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid collections in the spine that can present with neurological symptoms or be discovered accidentally. Intradural location of such cysts especially in the lumbosacral region is relatively rare. The association of such cysts with other congenital anomalies such as tethered cord lends evidence to the developmental origin of arachnoid cysts. We report a case of lumbosacral arachnoid cyst with tethered cord in a 6-year-old male child and discuss the etiopathogenesis and management options.
  4,879 28 -
Spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica in a female: A rare case report
Yeshwant Lonkar, Amar Amale, Sourya Acharya, Pankaj Banode, Meenakshi Yeola
July-December 2012, 3(2):76-78
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116557  PMID:24082690
Meralgia paresthetica presents as tingling sensation in the antero-lateral aspect of thigh. It occurs due to compression of the lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh. Proximal spinal lesions may present as meralgia paresthetica due to radiculopathy. We present a rare case of spinal hydatid with meralgia paresthetica.
  4,154 21 -
Primary spinal intradural extramedullary lymphoma causing cauda equina syndrome
Goutham Cugati, Manish Singh, Nigel Peter Symss, Anil Pande, MC Vasudevan, Ravi Ramamurthi
July-December 2012, 3(2):58-61
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116538  PMID:24082685
We report a case of lumbar intradural extramedullary lesion in an 11-year-old boy who presented with cauda equina syndrome and acute bladder disturbance. He underwent emergency surgical resection of the lesion, which was proved to be a lymphoma by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. He has improved neurologically and after 1 year, he is leading a normal life with near normal neurological functions. This is the second case of primary spinal intradural extramedullary lymphoma. This is the first such case in the pediatric age group and causing cauda equina syndrome. We describe the characteristics of such tumors along with pathogenesis and management.
  3,536 26 7
The long time follow-up of craniovertebral junction fixation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Kadir Kotil
July-December 2012, 3(2):42-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116532  PMID:24082682
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can have very destructive effects, especially in the cervical spine. Bone quality is poor in these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of fusion and accuracy of fluoroscopy in cervical transpedicular fixation (CPF) in a standardized clinical protocol for RA patients. Materials and Methods: 96 pedicles of 15 patients operated between January 2000 and ay 2010 due to atlanto-axial and subaxial cervical subluxation were investigated for post-operative malposition of the transpedicular screws. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used as a useful tool in preoperative planning and in transarticular or transpedicular screw placement with the free hand technique in the cervical spine of RA patients. Fixation and reduction with fusion was performed in all of the patients, and autogrefts from iliac wing were used for fusion. Ranawat's and Nurick scales were used to assess the results. All screws were evaluated by Kast's criteria. Fusion or stability was evaluated on plain radiographs taken 3 weeks and 6, 12 and 60 months after the surgery. Results: Female to male ratio was 6/9. The mean age at the time of surgery was 57.4 years (range 44-72 years). Five of the patients were operated for both C1-2 and subaxial subluxation. Two of the 15 patients had only C1-2 subluxation and the remaining eight patients had only subaxial cervical subluxation. The screws were at their correct places in 84 pedicles (87.5.%) while minor breach was detected in 9 (10.9%). According to Ranawat's criteria, seven patients remained the same, and eight patients showed improvement. Instrumentation failure, loss of reduction or non-union was not observed at the final follow-up (average 31.5 months; range 24-60 months). Conclusion: CPF provides a very strong three column stabilization and solid fusion in the osteoporotic vertebrae, but also carries a risk of vascular injury without nerve damage or in the RA patients, but the risk is low in experienced hands.
  3,489 58 -
Giant cell tumor of dorsal vertebral body
Rakesh Redhu, Rajpal Poonia
July-December 2012, 3(2):67-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116542  PMID:24082687
A 30-year-old female patient presented with complaints of backache, weakness in both lower limbs and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Imaging showed an osteolytic lesion at tenth dorsal (D10) vertebra with anterior compression on the spinal cord. Complete intralesional tumor excision with reconstruction was carried out using the anterolateral extrapleural approach. Histopathological examination was suggestive of giant cell tumor (GCT). Because of complete intralesional tumor excision and fear of post-radiation osteonecrosis of bone used for delayed bony union, a conservative approach was used, and radiation therapy was not given. After one year of follow-up patient is doing well without any recurrence of the tumor and is ambulant with support. GCT of dorsal vertebral body is an uncommon entity and total en bloc excision is difficult. Therefore, the treatment strategy is not well-defined. We discuss in brief about incidence, presentation and various treatment modalities available for spinal GCT.
  3,440 34 -
Intraosseouss degenerative cyst of the axis approached via transcervical extrapharyngeal avenue
Gustavo Rassier Isolan, Apio Claudio Antunes, Jorge Manfrim, Alvaro Ernani Georg, Frederico Falcetta
July-December 2012, 3(2):70-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116548  PMID:24082688
Intraosseous degenerative cysts (IDC) of the cervical spine are rare. IDC within C2 have been reported in three articles only. We report a patient with neck pain due to a IDC within C2. We discuss the differential diagnosis of these lesions and the surgical approaches to reach this complex anatomical region.
  3,204 24 -
Relevance of Goel's hypothesis regarding pathogenesis of degenerative spondylosis and its implications on facet distraction surgery
Atul Goel
July-December 2012, 3(2):39-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-8237.116531  PMID:24082681
  2,794 53 1