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   2020| April-June  | Volume 11 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 5, 2020

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The incidence of odontoid fractures following trauma in a major trauma center, a retrospective study
Sami Ibrahim AlEissa, Ali Abdullah Alhandi, Ahad Abdullah Bugis, Raghad Khalid Alsalamah, Abdulellah Alsheddi, Abdulaziz Khalid Almubarak, Suhail Saad AlAssiri, Faisal MohammedSaleh Konbaz
April-June 2020, 11(2):71-74
Background: Cervical spine injury is the most common vertebral injury after major trauma, 20% of all cervical fractures happen to be odontoid fractures. In young adults, odontoid fracture usually happens as a result of high-energy trauma after a motor vehicle accident (MVA). MVA in Riyadh represents 38.4% of all trauma cases, in which the head-and-neck are the most injured body parts. This research aims to provide information about the incidence of odontoid process fracture post-MVA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The design of this study was retrospective. A single level one trauma center database (trauma registry) was used to identify odontoid fractures post-MVA. All trauma cases from 2008 to the most recent were included, a total of 17,047 patients, to identify cervical spine fractures and further identify odontoid fracture incidence. The patients' radiographs were reviewed retrospectively, and odontoid fractures were classified by a board-certified spine surgeon. A descriptive analysis was carried out to report basic data distribution. Pearson's correlation was carried out to assess associations. Results: A total number of cervical spine fracture was 1195 patients (6.6% of the total sample). The incidence of odontoid fractures during the entire study period from 2008 to 2018 was 42 of 480 patients with C2 cervical trauma, constituting 8.75% C2 fractures, and 3.5% of cervical spine fractures. The mean age was 41.75 ± 18 years. There were three patients (onemale, two females) with type I odontoid fracture, 26 (all males) with type II, and 13 (11 males, 2 females) with type III. Most patients were managed conservatively (83.33%), whereas 16.67% underwent surgical management. Conclusion: The incidence of posttraumatic odontoid fractures is low, given the younger population of this study. This does not predict future incidence rates with the continued improvement of road traffic laws and awareness in the population.
  2,372 47 1
Augmented reality and artificial intelligence-assisted surgical navigation: Technique and cadaveric feasibility study
Kris B Siemionow, Karina M Katchko, Paul Lewicki, Cristian J Luciano
April-June 2020, 11(2):81-85
Purpose: Augmented reality-based image overlay of virtual bony spine anatomy can be projected onto real spinal anatomy using computer tomography-generated DICOM images acquired intraoperatively. The aim of the study was to develop a technique and assess the accuracy and feasibility of lumbar vertebrae pedicle instrumentation using augmented reality-assisted surgical navigation. Subjects and Methods: An augmented reality and artificial intelligence (ARAI)-assisted surgical navigation system was developed. The system consists of a display system which hovers over the surgical field and projects three-dimensional (3D) medical images corresponding with the patient's anatomy. The system was registered to the cadaveric spine using an optical tracker and arrays with reflective markers. The virtual image overlay from the ARAI system was compared to 3D generated images from intraoperative scans and used to percutaneously navigate a probe to the cortex at the corresponding pedicle starting point. Intraoperative scan was used to confirm the probe position. Virtual probe placement was compared to the actual probe position in the bone to determine the accuracy of the navigation system. Results: Four cadaveric thoracolumbar spines were used. The navigated probes were correctly placed in all attempted levels (n = 24 levels), defined as Zdichavsky type 1a, Ravi type I, and Gertzbein type 0. The virtual overlay image corresponded to the 3D generated image in all the tested levels. Conclusions: The ARAI surgical navigation system correctly and accurately identified the starting points at all the attempted levels. The virtual anatomy image overlay precisely corresponded to the actual anatomy in all the tested scenarios. This technology may lead more uniform outcomes between surgeons and decrease minimally invasive spine surgery learning curves.
  2,078 110 6
Autonomous image segmentation and identification of anatomical landmarks from lumbar spine intraoperative computed tomography scans using machine learning: A validation study
Krzyzstof Siemionow, Cristian Luciano, Craig Forsthoefel, Suavi Aydogmus
April-June 2020, 11(2):99-103
Purpose: Machine-learning algorithms are a subset of artificial intelligence that have proven to enhance analytics in medicine across various platforms. Spine surgery has the potential to benefit from improved hardware placement utilizing algorithms that autonomously and accurately measure pedicle and vertebral body anatomy. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of an autonomous convolutional neural network (CNN) in measuring vertebral body anatomy utilizing clinical lumbar computed tomography (CT) scans and automatically segment vertebral body anatomy. Methods: The CNN was trained utilizing 8000 manually segmented CT slices from 15 cadaveric specimens and 30 adult diagnostic scans. Validation was performed with twenty randomly selected patient datasets. Anatomic landmarks that were segmented included the pedicle, vertebral body, spinous process, transverse process, facet joint, and lamina. Morphometric measurement of the vertebral body was compared between manual measurements and automatic measurements. Results: Automatic segmentation was found to have a mean accuracy ranging from 96.38% to 98.96%. Coaxial distance from the lamina to the anterior cortex was 99.10% with pedicle angulation error of 3.47%. Conclusion: The CNN algorithm tested in this study provides an accurate means to automatically identify the vertebral body anatomy and provide measurements for implants and placement trajectories.
  1,937 81 3
Surgical treatment of scoliosis in neurofibromatosis type I: A retrospective study on posterior-only correction with third-generation instrumentation
Pasquale Cinnella, Silvia Amico, Alessandro Rava, Mattia Cravino, Giosuè Gargiulo, Massimo Girardo
April-June 2020, 11(2):104-110
Background: Scoliosis is the most common orthopedic complication of neurofibromatosis type I. Scoliosis can be occurred with two patterns: dystrophic or idiopathic-like. In adolescence, in consideration of bone dystrophy, osteopenia, and often associated hyperkyphosis, most of the authors recommend an anterior-posterior approach. According to other authors, modern instrumentations could be sufficient to sustain a solid posterior arthrodesis. Materials and Methods: Ten patients were diagnosed with scoliosis in neurofibromatosis type I aged between 8 and 25 years, Cobb angle of the thoracic curve >45°, and minimum follow-up (FU) of 1 year and treated with posterior-only approach with third-generation high-density instrumentations. Radiographic measurements were performed on the coronal and sagittal planes. Nonparametric tests (Friedman test and Wilcoxon test) were applied to evaluate the reducibility of the preoperative curve (T0), the postoperative surgical correction (T1), and its maintenance on FU. Results: Statistics showed results compared to those evaluated in the literature with a combined approach regarding surgical correction and its maintenance on FU. On T1, a median correction of 53.5% of the scoliotic curve and of 33.7% of the thoracic hyperkyphosis was observed. On FU, the correction was maintained. A global improvement in balance was appreciated. The curves, despite rigid, showed a relative reducibility to bending tests and traction. No significant complications occurred. Conclusions: The posterior-only approach produces a satisfactory correction of the dystrophic neurofibromatosis scoliosis if associated with the use of high-density third-generation instrumentations. We are confident in recommending posterior-only approach in dystrophic neurofibromatosis scoliosis with coronal curves till 110° and coexisting thoracic kyphosis till 80°
  1,812 76 2
Stand-alone polyetheretherketone cages for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for successive four-level degenerative disc disease without plate fixation
Ahmed M Ashour, Ibrahim Abdelmohsen, Medhat El Sawy, Ahmed Faisal Toubar
April-June 2020, 11(2):118-123
Background: Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion became the most frequently performed technique for the treatment of symptoms related to cervical disc prolapse. Multilevel anterior cervical discectomy has been combined with anterior cervical plate application to help maintain the cervical lordosis and enhance fusion. This was associated with more soft-tissue separation and retraction with increased incidence of surgically related complications and postoperative dysphagia.Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the stand-alone cervical polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages in four-level discectomy and to determine if it is possible to avoid anterior plate fixation and to achieve satisfactory outcomes. Methodology: This is a retrospective study which was performed between June 2011 and December 2018 at one institute. The clinical and radiological data were collected from patients who underwent successive four-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with PEEK cages for degenerative cervical disc disease without plate fixation. Results: This study included 66 patients, 35 males and 31 females. The follow-up period was 24 months. Mean Japanese Orthopedic Association scores were 13.3 ± 1.41 preoperative and 15.9 ± 0.86 postoperative (P = 0.046). The cervical curvature index “Ishihara” (ICI) was 9.9 ± 5.90 preoperative and the mean of ICI was 10.5 ± 6.65 postoperative, which is insignificant, P = 0.7). The lordotic curvature according to these results was preserved till the end of the year and half of the follow-up period postoperative. Conclusion: Consecutive four-level anterior discectomy with PEEK cage interbody fusion without plate and screw is a safe and effective procedure in the absence of instability, and it may be a reliable alternative for the treatment of multilevel cervical disc.
  1,805 68 -
Diagnostic yield and technical aspects of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of the spine: A single-center retrospective analysis of outcomes and review of the literature
Reddy Ravikanth
April-June 2020, 11(2):93-98
Background: The technique of a percutaneous transpedicular biopsy of spinal lesions has been shown to be a useful alternative to paraspinal biopsy for vertebral body lesions in the thoracic and lumbosacral spine. Percutaneous vertebral biopsy is less invasive, cost-effective, and is suitable for patients with intractable back pain and vertebral body lesions that are detected with noninvasive imaging modalities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish the diagnostic utility and spectrum of fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transpedicular biopsies of the thoracolumbar spine performed at our institution. Materials and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study to establish the diagnostic utility and spectrum of percutaneous fluroscopic guided transpedicular biopsy of lower thoracic and lumbar vertebral lesions has been performed on 42 patients in a tertiary care hospital between April 2017 and December 2019. There were 28 male patients and 14 female patients. The mean age was 48 years (range: 12–66 years). There were one 14 thoracic, 26 lumbar, and 2 sacral biopsy specimens. The lesion level was determined under fluoroscopy. Biopsy was taken with a trephine needle under local anesthesia. Accuracy and effectiveness of the technique were analyzed on histopathologic confirmation. Results: The fluoroscopic guided percutaneous transpedicular spine biopsies of 42 patients with spinal pathology were performed through the posterior transpedicular approach percutaneously. Of the 42 patients, 28 were male (66.7%) and 14 were female (33.3%). Vertebral involvement was observed to be more in the lower thoracic region (26.2%), followed by the upper dorsal region (7.1%), L1 (23.6%), L2 (6.4%), L3 (14.6%), L5 (17.3%), and sacrum (4.8%). There were 21 cases with tumor etiology (14 metastasis, 2 malignant round cell tumor, 2 multiple myeloma, and 3 lymphomas), 14 tuberculosis (TB), 4 osteomyelitis, 2 inflammatory, and 1 isolated compression fractures. Twelve patients of the 14 diagnosed cases who were diagnosed with TB on histopathology had positive TB culture and sensitivity pattern. Conclusion: Percutaneous transpedicular fluoroscopy-guided biopsy with a Jamshidi trocar with an internal diameter of 3.1 mm is a simple, safe, and reliable method for the etiological diagnosis of vertebral lesions. The use of this technique, however, is dependent on the accurate placement of the trocar and on close qualified interdisciplinary clinical cooperation. This minimally invasive technique is simple, safe, and effective in the diagnosis of malignant and infective lesions.
  1,789 66 1
Management of metastatic vertebral lesions by interventional techniques: Systematic review of outcomes
Reddy Ravikanth
April-June 2020, 11(2):61-70
Vertebral metastases represent an important cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Among all available treatments, interventional percutaneous techniques have recently emerged as potential strategies for the management of oncologic patients with vertebral lesions. Minimally invasive image-guided therapies include “ablative” and “consolidative” ones. According to the number of metastases and the patient's performance status, ablative techniques can be performed with a curative or a palliative purpose since necrosis induced by critic changes of intralesional temperature determines both tumor debulking and destruction of pain receptors. On the other hand, consolidative treatments are based on the injection of polymethylmethacrylate cement to improve structural vertebral integrity and obtain pain alleviation and prevention of skeletal-related events. This article reviews the current recommendations supporting the role of interventional radiology in the management of vertebral metastases, focusing on the last updates in literature.
  1,627 55 -
Odontoid process and intervertebral disc: Do they have the same function?
Atul Goel
April-June 2020, 11(2):59-60
  1,605 33 -
Early percutaneous treatment of an aggressive vertebral hemangioma: A case report with a 5-year follow-up
Pietro Giorgi, Domenico Compagnone, Enrico Gallazzi, Giuseppe Rosario Schirò
April-June 2020, 11(2):139-142
Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are very common radiological findings, and the majority of them are completely asymptomatic and harmless. However, although rarely, they can present as locally aggressive, symptomatic lesions, and requiring surgery. In these cases, early diagnosis and treatment are mandatory to avoid serious complications and invasive surgery; however, there is no consensus about the best therapeutic option. Minimally-invasive percutaneous techniques have recently gained interests as a therapeutic option. A case of a 58-year-old male with a symptomatic aggressive VH of L5 presenting with untractable low back and radicular pain without neurological deficits is reported. An early percutaneous procedure with selective embolization combined with biportal kyphoplasty of L5 was performed. No complications and a very low-intraoperative bleeding were reported. The patient has been monitored for the following 5 years with a good outcome and with no signs of recurrence. This case report highlights the importance of making the right diagnosis and the advantages of an early percutaneous treatment with selective embolization and augmentation to avoid major open surgery with high risks.
  1,554 49 -
Adult idiopathic de novo lumbar scoliosis: Analysis of surgical treatment in 14 patients by “only fixation”
Atul Goel, Neha Jadhav, Abhidha Shah, Survendra Rai, Ravikiran Vutha, Saswat Dandpat, Arjun Dhar, Apurva Prasad
April-June 2020, 11(2):124-130
Objective: The authors report their experience with 14 cases having adult idiopathic de novo lumbar scoliosis (AIDLS) and presenting with the predominant symptoms of claudication pain in the low back and legs. The patients were treated by only multisegmental stabilization, and the surgical procedure aimed for arthrodesis without any form of bone or soft-tissue decompression. The clinical outcome of this novel form of surgical treatment is presented. Materials and Methods: During the period of June 2014 to June 2019, 14 patients having AIDLS (degenerative scoliosis) were surgically treated. Apart from clinical and radiological guides, instability was diagnosed on the basis of direct physical observation of the status of articulation and by manual manipulation of bones of the region. The Camille transarticular facet screw fixation technique provided a quick, safe, and strong segmental spinal fixation. An additional inter-screw metal link plate provided intersegmental stability at selected levels. The Oswestry Disability index and visual analog scale were used to assess the patients before and after surgery and at follow-up. In addition, a personalized Patient Satisfaction Score was used to assess the outcome of surgery. Results: Clinical symptomatic recovery was observed in all patients in the immediate postoperative period. During the average follow-up period, 100% patients had varying degrees of symptomatic relief. Conclusions: Spinal instability is the nodal point of pathogenesis of spinal degeneration-related AIDLS. Only fixation of the involved spinal segments is necessary, and decompression by bone or soft-tissue resection is not necessary.
  1,502 78 2
A study of cervical vertebra anomalies among individuals with different sagittal and vertical facial growth patterns
Venkatachalapathy Anusuya, Jitendra Sharan, Ashok Kumar Jena
April-June 2020, 11(2):75-80
Objective: The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of cervical vertebra anomalies (CVA) in individuals with different sagittal and vertical skeletal growth patterns of jaws and also to establish the associations of anomalies with the type of growth, if any. Materials and Methods: A total of 293 lateral cephalograms were evaluated for CVA. Based on the Frankfort mandibular plane angle, cephalograms were categorized into three groups: Group I, II, and III. Based on the ANB angle, cephalograms were classified into three classes, Class 1, 2, and 3. Six types of CVA such as partial cleft (PC), block fusion (BF), dehiscence (D), fusion between C2 and C3 (F23), occipitalization (OC), and spina bifida (SB) were identified on lateral cephalograms. Descriptive statistics were applied along with multinomial logistic regression analysis. P = 0.05 was considered as the level of statistical significance. Results: PC was most common in the overall samples (36%). BF was the least common (3.2%) CVA. The frequency of various CVA was comparable between males and females in all the three classes of individuals. The association of vertical growth patterns with CVA was found to be statistically nonsignificant (P > 0.05). Class 2 malocclusion was found to be statistically significantly associated with the D (P = 0.043). Conclusions: PC, fusion, and D were the most frequently found CVA, and SB was found only among the hypodivergent growth pattern individuals. The association of CVA with vertical facial growth patterns was not significant, somewhat influenced by age, sex, and sagittal skeletal malocclusions.
  1,478 63 1
Radiographic benefit of incorporating the inflection between the cervical and thoracic curves in fusion constructs for surgical cervical deformity patients
Cole Bortz, Peter G Passias, Katherine Elizabeth Pierce, Haddy Alas, Avery Brown, Sara Naessig, Waleed Ahmad, Renaud Lafage, Christopher P Ames, Bassel G Diebo, Breton G Line, Eric O Klineberg, Douglas C Burton, Robert K Eastlack, Han Jo Kim, Daniel M Sciubba, Alex Soroceanu, Shay Bess, Christopher I Shaffrey, Frank J Schwab, Justin S Smith, Virginie Lafage
April-June 2020, 11(2):131-138
Purpose: The aim is to assess the relationship between cervicothoracic inflection point and baseline disability, as well as the relationship between clinical outcomes and pre- to postoperative changes in inflection point. Methods: Cervical deformity (CD) patients with baseline and 3-month (3M) postoperative radiographic, clinical, and inflection data were grouped by region of inflection point: C6 or above, C6-C7 to C7-T1, T1, or below. Inflection was defined as: Distal-most level where cervical lordosis (CL) changes to thoracic kyphosis (TK). Differences in alignment and patient factors across pre- and postoperative inflection point groups were assessed, as were outcomes by the inclusion of inflection in the CD-corrective fusion construct. Results: A total of 108 patients were included. Preoperative inflection breakdown: C6 or above (42%), C6-C7 to C7-T1 (44%), T1 or below (15%). Surgery was associated with a caudal migration of inflection by 3M: C6 or above (8%), C6-C7 to C7-T1 (58%), T1 or below (33%). For patients with preoperative inflection T1 or below, the inclusion of inflection in the fusion construct was associated with improvements in horizontal gaze (McGregor's Slope included: −11.3° vs. not included: 1.6°, P = 0.038). The inclusion of preoperative inflection in fusion was associated with the superior cervical sagittal vertical axis (cSVA) changes for C6-C7 to C7-T1 patients (−5.2 mm vs. 3.2 mm, P = 0.018). The location of postoperative inflection was associated with variation in 3M alignment: Inflection C6 or above was associated with less Pelvic Tilt (PT), PT and a trend of larger cSVA. Location of inflection or inclusion in fusion was not associated with reoperation or distal junctional kyphosis. Conclusions: Incorporating the inflection point between CL and TK in the fusion construct was associated with superior restoration of cervical alignment and horizontal gaze for surgical CD patients.
  1,307 77 1
Complete anterior–posterior minimally invasive thoracoscopic robotic-assisted and posterior tubular approach for resection of thoracic dumbbell tumor
Joshua T Wewel, Manish K Kasliwal, Gary W Chmielewski, John E O'Toole
April-June 2020, 11(2):148-151
Thoracic dumbbell tumors are relatively uncommon neoplasms that arise from the neurogenic elements. Surgical resection can be challenging as the tumor involves both the spinal canal and thoracic cavity. Historically, thoracotomy and laminectomy were utilized for the resection of these tumors. Although single-stage removal of such tumors has been described recently, there is no prior description of a total minimally invasive single-stage resection of a thoracic dumbbell ganglioneuroma. The current report describes a completely minimally invasive surgical resection for such a tumor performed using the posterior minimally invasive tubular approach to resect the intraspinal component with ligation of the T2 nerve root in conjunction with robotic-assisted thoracoscopic resection of the extraforaminal, intrathoracic component of the tumor. This report illustrates the safety and utility of a completely minimally invasive endoscopic resection of a thoracic dumbbell tumor that can potentially obviate the morbidity associated with open surgical resections for such tumors.
  1,301 46 1
Does kyphosis in healed subaxial cervical spine tuberculosis equate to a poor functional outcome?
Sudhir Srivastava, Aditya Raj, Sunil Bhosale, Shaligram Purohit, Nandan Marathe, Swapneel Shah
April-June 2020, 11(2):86-92
Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) of the subaxial cervical spine has a high percentage of morbidity. It accounts for about 10% of cases with the major concerns being quadriparesis and localized kyphosis. Aim: The study aims to provide an insight in the management of subaxial cervical spine TB treated by multiple modalities. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 91 patients with subaxial cervical (C3–C7) TB was performed. Neurology was assessed by Nurick's grading and pain using the visual analog scale (VAS) (in mm). Radiological evaluation was done with standard anteroposterior and lateral view of the cervical spine at presentation and 3 monthly intervals after intervention. Magnetic resonance imaging was done in all patients. Angle of kyphosis (K angle) was calculated from plain radiographs. Results: Mean age of the patients was 31.5 years. Neurological status was Nurick's Grade 5 in 8, Grade 4 in 15, Grade 3 in 28, Grade 2 in 22, Grade 1 in 7, and further 11 had Nurick's Grade 0. Operative intervention was either anterior, or posterior, or a combination of both depending on extent of vertebral destruction. All patients with Nurick's 5 and 4 improved to 3 or less at final follow-up. The kyphosis angle at presentation ranged from 2° to 58° of with an average kyphosis of 16.05°. The postoperative kyphosis was graded as mild (loss of lordosis to 10° kyphosis), moderate (10°–30°), and severe (>30°). Ten patients had mild kyphosis and 6 patients had moderate kyphosis. Mean VAS score at presentation was 45.5 mm which improved to 14.48 mm at follow-up. Patients with mild and moderate kyphosis remained asymptomatic till the last follow-up. Conclusion: Healing of subaxial cervical TB in kyphosis does not necessitate a poor clinical outcome as most patients remain asymptomatic.
  1,264 46 1
Central atlantoaxial instability as a cause of syringomyelia mimic intramedullary lipoma
Atul Goel, Abhinandan Patil, Abhidha Shah, Survendra Rai, Ravikiran Vutha, Shashi Ranjan
April-June 2020, 11(2):152-154
A case of a 32-year-old male patient is reported. He was admitted with complaints of burning dysesthesias over his right upper limb and chest and spasticity in the legs. Investigations revealed a long segment intramedullary tumor, image intensity of which matched lipoma. Imaging of craniovertebral junction suggested atlantoaxial “facetal” instability. Atlantoaxial fixation was done, and the intramedullary lipoma was not physically handled or manipulated during surgery. The patient improved in his neurological condition following surgery. The follow-up imaging showed that the intramedullary lipoma reduced significantly in its dimensions. From the case, it appears that the presence of “fat” and “water” in the intramedullary location might have similar pathogenesis.
  1,226 34 -
Occipital condyle syndrome in a case of rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation (type II) with craniovertebral junction tuberculosis: Should we operate on “active tuberculosis?”
Ashutosh Kumar, Suyash Singh, Priyadarshi Dikshit, Kuntal Kanti Das, Arun Kumar Srivastava
April-June 2020, 11(2):143-147
Tuberculosis of the craniovertebral junction is rare as well as intriguing. We present a unique amalgamation of three rare entities: craniovertebral tuberculosis, occipital condyle syndrome, and nontraumatic type II rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation in one patient. We reviewed the limited literature available and the underlying pathophysiology to highlight the pattern of the disease presentation, progression, and response to management options. A 13-year-old girl presented with neck pain, torticollis, and right hypoglossal weakness following a fall from stairs 10 months back. Radiological investigation suggested right occipital condylar destruction with right-sided neck tilt and rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation. The contrast magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of craniovertebral tuberculosis with primary foci in the right lung (apical cavitary lesion). In view of an intact neurological condition, she was started on antitubercular treatment and she continues to do well during the follow-up. It remains debatable if an anticipation of this problem calls for a surgical addressal at the acute stage of the disease as a delayed correction is likely to be more complex. While a halo device is preferable in these cases, it remains cumbersome and less preferred in comparison to the Philadelphia collar.
  1,214 35 1
Revisiting the surgical corridors for cervical Type IIb-c dumbbell neurofibroma: A series of two unconventional approaches and review of literature
Suyash Singh, Anant Mehrotra, Ravi Shankar, M Arulalan, Kuntal Kanti Das, Awadhesh K Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
April-June 2020, 11(2):111-117
Background: Cervical sub-axial dumbbell neurofibromas (NFs) account for nearly 20% of all NFs, with prognosis depending on the extent of excision. When majority of tumor is extra-foraminal (Tomaya's Type IIb and c), certain unconventional anterolateral or posterolateral neck approaches are used for maximum safe excision. In our article, we provide a brief review of the literature regarding various surgical approaches, emphasizing the utility of posterolateral or combined anterior and posterior neck approaches for such giant NF. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained surgical databases, from our hospital discharge codes, for all cervical Type IIb-c dumbbell NF patients, who underwent surgery at our institution between 2015 and 2019. Clinical variables included age at admission, clinical presentation, and surgical difficulties, and the outcome was analyzed. Results: Four patients of age ranging from 22 to 45 years (M:F 3:1) were operated by posterolateral (n = 3) and combined anteroposterior (n = 1) approach. Three patients underwent near-total excision and one patient had total excision. One patient with tumor capsule attached to roots of upper brachial plexus had motor deficit, who was re-admitted for neurotization. There was no intraoperative complication. Conclusion: Posterolateral approach for cervical dumbbell giant NFs is safe, effective, and promises maximum safe excision. The major blood vessels including carotid artery or jugular veins in neck and vertebral artery at foraminal portion are directly under vision and control of surgeon. Despite near-total excision, wherein small part of adhered capsule is left, recurrence rate is low.
  1,201 40 1